Maximum Sum


A problem that is simple to solve in one dimension is often much more difficult to solve in more than one dimension. Consider satisfying a boolean expression in conjunctive normal form in which each conjunct consists of exactly 3 disjuncts. This problem (3-SAT) is NP-complete. The problem 2-SAT is solved quite efficiently, however. In contrast, some problems belong to the same complexity class regardless of the dimensionality of the problem.

The Problem

Given a 2-dimensional array of positive and negative integers, find the sub-rectangle with the largest sum. The sum of a rectangle is the sum of all the elements in that rectangle. In this problem the sub-rectangle with the largest sum is referred to as the maximal sub-rectangle. A sub-rectangle is any contiguous sub-array of size 1 x 1 or greater located within the whole array. As an example, the maximal sub-rectangle of the array:


is in the lower-left-hand corner:


and has the sum of 15.

Input and Output

The input consists of an undisclosed number of problems to solve. The input is terminated by the end of file marker.

Each input case begins with a single positive integer N on a line by itself indicating the size of a square two dimensional array. This is followed by N x N integers separated by white-space (newlines and spaces). These N x N integers make up the array in row-major order (i.e., all numbers on the first row, left-to-right, then all numbers on the second row, left-to-right, etc.). N may be as large as 100. The numbers in the array will be in the range [-127, 127].

The output is the sum of the maximal sub-rectangle. Each output should be calculated in 5 seconds or less.

Sample Input (read from

0 -2 -7  0 9  2 -6  2
-4  1 -4  1 -1
8  0 -2

Sample Output (send to System.out)